Open Source Technology: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and View Full PDF Software Licenses, Open Source Components, and Open Architectures. PDF | The focus of this chapter is to review what is known about free and Free ( as in freedom) software and open source software are often prior software technology or development method has come close to achieving. Why is it called Open Source Software? Open: collaboration Where scientists talk of discovering, Open Source programmers . licensed technology. The MPL .
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Open source software is computer software that has a source code available to the . information technology expertise, you may have to outsource technical. FOSS: Free and/or Open Source Software. ○ FLOSS: open source—e.g., Java (in the beginning). ○ Software can also be . technology patents in Android!. Open source commonly refers to software that uses an open development process and is Open source technology and open source thinking both benefit .
Data suggests, however, that OSS is not quite as democratic as the bazaar model suggests. The average number of authors involved in a project was 5. Open source software is usually easier to obtain than proprietary software, often resulting in increased use.
Additionally, the availability of an open source implementation of a standard can increase adoption of that standard. Moreover, lower costs of marketing and logistical services are needed for OSS. It is a good tool to promote a company's image, including its commercial products.
Open source development offers the potential for a more flexible technology and quicker innovation.
It is said to be more reliable since it typically has thousands of independent programmers testing and fixing bugs of the software. Open source is not dependent on the company or author that originally created it. Even if the company fails, the code continues to exist and be developed by its users.
Also, it uses open standards accessible to everyone; thus, it does not have the problem of incompatible formats that may exist in proprietary software. It is flexible because modular systems allow programmers to build custom interfaces, or add new abilities to it and it is innovative since open source programs are the product of collaboration among a large number of different programmers. The mix of divergent perspectives, corporate objectives, and personal goals speeds up innovation.
Moreover, free software can be developed in accord with purely technical requirements. It does not require thinking about commercial pressure that often degrades the quality of the software. Commercial pressures make traditional software developers pay more attention to customers' requirements than to security requirements, since such features are somewhat invisible to the customer. It is sometimes said that the open source development process may not be well defined and the stages in the development process, such as system testing and documentation may be ignored.
However this is only true for small mostly single programmer projects. Larger, successful projects do define and enforce at least some rules as they need them to make the teamwork possible.
Consequently, only technical requirements may be satisfied and not the ones of the market. It depends on control mechanisms in order to create effective performance of autonomous agents who participate in virtual organizations. In OSS development, tools are used to support the development of the product and the development process itself. Revision control systems such as Concurrent Versions System CVS and later Subversion SVN and Git are examples of tools, often themselves open source, help manage the source code files and the changes to those files for a software project.
Open source projects are often loosely organized with "little formalised process modelling or support", but utilities such as issue trackers are often used to organize open source software development.
Tools such as mailing lists and IRC provide means of coordination among developers. New organizations tend to have a more sophisticated governance model and their membership is often formed by legal entity members. Open Source Software Institute is a membership-based, non-profit c 6 organization established in that promotes the development and implementation of open source software solutions within US Federal, state and local government agencies.
OSSI's efforts have focused on promoting adoption of open source software programs and policies within Federal Government and Defense and Homeland Security communities.
Open Source for America is a group created to raise awareness in the United States Federal Government about the benefits of open source software. Their stated goals are to encourage the government's use of open source software, participation in open source software projects, and incorporation of open source community dynamics to increase government transparency.
Open-source software is widely used both as independent applications and as components in non-open-source applications.
Customers may be willing to use open technology under standard commercial terms and thereby pay for open-source software when additional value is created.
This can be the case for legal protection e. Open-source software is used as components inside of proprietary, for-profit products and services by many independent software vendors ISVs , value-added resellers VARs , and hardware vendors OEMs or ODMs in frameworks , modules, and libraries. The debate over open source vs. The top four reasons as provided by Open Source Business Conference survey  individuals or organizations choose open source software are:.
Since innovative companies no longer rely heavily on software sales, proprietary software has become less of a necessity. Further, companies like Novell who traditionally sold software the old-fashioned way continually debate the benefits of switching to open source availability, having already switched part of the product offering to open source code. With this market shift, more critical systems are beginning to rely on open source offerings,  allowing greater funding such as US Department of Homeland Security grants  to help "hunt for security bugs.
Proprietary source distributors have started to develop and contribute to the open source community due to the market share shift, doing so by the need to reinvent their models in order to remain competitive. Many advocates argue that open source software is inherently safer because any person can view, edit, and change code.
According to the Free software movement 's leader, Richard Stallman , the main difference is that by choosing one term over the other i. The FSF  said that the term "open source" fosters an ambiguity of a different kind such that it confuses the mere availability of the source with the freedom to use, modify, and redistribute it. On the other hand, the "free software" term was criticized for the ambiguity of the word "free" as "available at no cost", which was seen as discouraging for business adoption,  and for the historical ambiguous usage of the term.
Raymond and others. The term "open source" was originally intended to be trademarkable; however, the term was deemed too descriptive, so no trademark exists. OSI Certified is a trademark licensed only to people who are distributing software licensed under a license listed on the Open Source Initiative's list.
Although the OSI definition of "open source software" is widely accepted, a small number of people and organizations use the term to refer to software where the source is available for viewing, but which may not legally be modified or redistributed. Such software is more often referred to as source-available , or as shared source , a term coined by Microsoft in Before changing the license of software, distributors usually audit the source code for third party licensed code which they would have to remove or obtain permission for its relicense.
Backdoors and other malware should also be removed as they may easily be discovered after release of the code. Open source software projects are built and maintained by a network of volunteer programmers and are widely used in free as well as commercial products. While the term "open source" applied originally only to the source code of software,  it is now being applied to many other areas  such as Open source ecology ,  a movement to decentralize technologies so that any human can use them.
However, it is often misapplied to other areas which have different and competing principles, which overlap only partially. The same principles that underlie open source software can be found in many other ventures, such as open-source hardware , Wikipedia , and open-access publishing.
Collectively, these principles are known as open source, open content , and open collaboration: This "culture" or ideology takes the view that the principles apply more generally to facilitate concurrent input of different agendas, approaches and priorities, in contrast with more centralized models of development such as those typically used in commercial companies.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 9 April Open-source software shares similarities with free software and is now part of the broader term free and open-source software. For broader coverage of this topic, see Open-source software movement. Further information: History of free and open-source software. Main article: Open-source license.
Free software license. See also: Open-source software development model.
Business models for open-source software. Comparison of open-source and closed-source software. Alternative terms for free software. Comparison of free and open-source software licenses. Source-available software. So if we needed to patch, adjust, or adapt, we could. List of free and open-source software packages.
Open source model. Open content and Open collaboration. Free and open-source software portal. Free software Free software community Free software movement List of open source software packages Open-content Open source advocacy Open source hardware Open Source Initiative Open Source Software Institute Open source software security Open source video games All articles with titles containing "Open source" Proprietary software Shared source Timeline of open source software.
Laurent, Andrew M.
O'Reilly Media. Principles and Performance". Organization Science. Free Software Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 8 September Archived from the original on 18 January Review of Network Economics. Retrieved But the problem went deeper than that. The word "free" carried with it an inescapable moral connotation: Those were merely pleasant side effects of a motive that was, at its root, neither technical nor mercantile, but moral.
Furthermore, the "free as in freedom" position forced a glaring inconsistency on corporations who wanted to support particular free programs in one aspect of their business, but continue marketing proprietary software in others.
Because early inventors built much of the Internet itself on open source technologies—like the Linux operating system and the Apache Web server application —anyone using the Internet today benefits from open source software. Every time computer users view web pages, check email, chat with friends, stream music online, or play multiplayer video games, their computers, mobile phones, or gaming consoles connect to a global network of computers using open source software to route and transmit their data to the "local" devices they have in front of them.
The computers that do all this important work are typically located in faraway places that users don't actually see or can't physically access—which is why some people call these computers "remote computers. More and more, people rely on remote computers when performing tasks they might otherwise perform on their local devices.
For example, they may use online word processing, email management, and image editing software that they don't install and run on their personal computers. Instead, they simply access these programs on remote computers by using a Web browser or mobile phone application. When they do this, they're engaged in "remote computing. Some people call remote computing "cloud computing," because it involves activities like storing files, sharing photos, or watching videos that incorporate not only local devices but also a global network of remote computers that form an "atmosphere" around them.
Cloud computing is an increasingly important aspect of everyday life with Internet-connected devices. Some cloud computing applications, like Google Apps, are proprietary. Others, like ownCloud and Nextcloud , are open source. Cloud computing applications run "on top" of additional software that helps them operate smoothly and efficiently, so people will often say that software running "underneath" cloud computing applications acts as a " platform " for those applications.
Cloud computing platforms can be open source or closed source. OpenStack is an example of an open source cloud computing platform. Many people prefer open source software because they have more control over that kind of software. They can examine the code to make sure it's not doing anything they don't want it to do, and they can change parts of it they don't like.
Users who aren't programmers also benefit from open source software, because they can use this software for any purpose they wish—not merely the way someone else thinks they should.
Other people like open source software because it helps them become better programmers. Because open source code is publicly accessible, students can easily study it as they learn to make better software.
Students can also share their work with others, inviting comment and critique, as they develop their skills. When people discover mistakes in programs' source code, they can share those mistakes with others to help them avoid making those same mistakes themselves. Some people prefer open source software because they consider it more secure and stable than proprietary software. Because anyone can view and modify open source software, someone might spot and correct errors or omissions that a program's original authors might have missed.
And because so many programmers can work on a piece of open source software without asking for permission from original authors, they can fix, update, and upgrade open source software more quickly than they can proprietary software. Many users prefer open source software to proprietary software for important, long-term projects.
In a typical FOSS, initially an individual or few volunteers involve in the project. Once the project is 5. Later other members from the community The most popular of these licenses are: The Concurrent Versions a. FreeBSD License . CVS is a client-server software revision control system. Mozilla Public License . CVS keeps track of all changes in a set of files, and d. Apache License . CVS itself is a e.
Free and Open Source Software. Globally distributed We will not go into the details of these licenses. For software development by virtual teams promises the interested user references of these licenses are provided. Modular design supports source software will be more challenging for both sides. Due to distributed nature of robust, competitive, secure, and user-friendly applications FOSS, its design must be modular that can easily will capture the market.
Businesses will rely more on incorporate into the main system. Modularity is favorable providing services related to Free and Open Source characteristics for open source production . Modular Software. Free and Open Source Software offers much design with well-defined interfaces helps in effective more revenue-generating opportunities than anticipated in the past.
Systems of the future. This fits very well the characteristics of the Open Source Software. We described the evolution, Open Source production process . We listed widely used FOSS code, inspect it, modify it, and distribute it. This mean licenses. The wide ranges of FOSS licensing options give FOSS licenses inherently encourages a developer to reuse more flexibility to developers and distributors. The wide code. The reuse of code can be either within the project or spread diffusion of the Internet and communication outside the project, i.
A more details technologies helped in the formation of communities. Modular and distributed development is the 6. Download websites, mailing-lists, blogs, security, availability, reliability, quality, and efficiency of forums, etc. The business opportunities of are growing.
Sources of income range from donations to and distribution of Free and Open Source Software. But now business model available at: Sources of income range from http: It also worth to mention  Roy T.
Fielding and Gail E. The market share of http: In 66, pp. Source software can succeed", Research Policy, vol. February , available at: Economics, Vol.